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Institute Mihailo Pupin
Institute Mihailo Pupin is the leading Serbian R&D institution in the field of Information & Communication Techologies.

Automation & Control Systems Ltd
The Automation & Control Systems Ltd is the core division of the Institute Mihailo Pupin, and the owner of the projects: ATLAS Systems and ATLAS-MAX.

The long list of the Institute's references and customers is the best proof of its high professional and techological achievments.

The other related IMP project: VIEW4 Software Package for control of complex processes

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pATLAS I/O Interface


Input output and special modules provide required pATLAS interface with the industrial process and actual surrounding.  I/O and special modules present slave nodes on the I2C Bus managed by the pATLAS CPU.  They are fully compliant with all related industrial and electric power system standards, including required voltage insulations and separations, data conversions and accuracies, and other signal conditioning provided on the modules themselves.

pATLAS Modules


  • Input modules acquire data from the process in real-time manner, which are than passed to the pATLAS CPU for further handling and processing.  The input process data present normalized and standardized digital and analog electrical signals that correspond to different physical process quantities.  The data normalization is accomplished by the third part equipment (relays, transducers, converters, transformers, etc.) out of the pATLAS scope.  A variety of input process quantities assumes differences among input modules - there is no a universal input module able to accommodate all input process quantities.  Three major hardware types of input modules (with possibility of certain minor adjustments on modules themselves) can handle the full range of input process data:

Analogue Input Modules – several types of modules designed to accept and accommodate standard normalized current or voltage signals from the process, and convert them into corresponding numerical digital data, suitable for further data processing.   The standard resolution of the implemented AD conversions is 12 bits, which provides a sufficient data accuracy of 0.2%, while the required galvanic separation and speeds are provided by the corresponding module designs.

Digital Input Modules – modules designed to scan and filter binary voltage signals from the process (in octets/bytes or byte multiples), with special attention paid to: voltage range of input signals;,galvanic signal separations, module capacity, signal filtering, and input scanning rate.

Counter Input Modules – modules designed to filter and count (accumulate) the incoming sequences of pulse signals from the process.  The signal counting is autonomous, hardware or program based.  The significance and sensitivity of counting data require strict and accurate module tuning, and full compliance with existing standards and recommendations for: input signal filtering, counter type and size, numerical conversions and galvanic signal separation.


  • Output modules deliver data to the process (setup, control and indication data) in real-time manner - they present analogue and digital setup values, on/off, pulse and direct controls, and other analogue and digital indication data.  Having in mind the control nature of the output process data, a special attention is paid to the data integrity and security. 

Analog Output Modules - several types of modules designed to deliver standard reference current or voltage signals to the process, for regulation or indication purposes.  The needed operational flexibility is achieved through module hardware settings and program control, related to: output signal range, output signal accuracy, output impedance matching and galvanic signal separation.

Digital Output Modules – several types of digital setup and control modules.  A functional variety of possible digital and control output signals implies a variety in supporting output modules.  The differences in the module designs are especially visible regarding required control outputs toward process: transistor or relay contact, permanent or pulse output signal, fixed duration or modulated output signal, single or two step operation, galvanic output signal separation and voltage output signal range.


  • Special modules are also available (like, GPS time synchronization module, GPSR and TCP/IP controllers, FO Hub,...), or could be made on demand.  The general approach is to move, always when possible, all specific process requirements into the programming area.  However, sometimes process peculiarities and restrictions (mostly time restrictions) make a special module design unavoidable.