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Institute Mihailo Pupin
Institute Mihailo Pupin is the leading Serbian R&D institution in the field of Information & Communication Techologies.

Automation & Control Systems Ltd
The Automation & Control Systems Ltd is the core division of the Institute Mihailo Pupin, and the owner of the projects: ATLAS Systems and ATLAS-MAX.

The long list of the Institute's references and customers is the best proof of its high professional and techological achievments.

The other related IMP project: VIEW4 Software Package for control of complex processes

You are here:     ATLAS-MAX System Specification ATLAS-MAX Startup
ATLAS-MAX Startup & Initialization


ATLAS-MAX/RTL is a firmware controlled system – consequently, upon the start-up it must complete its initialization phase to reach the operational state when it is able to continue with regular jobs.  Initialization is a procedure during which a proper system RTE (run-time environment) is established, the unavoidable requirement for a successful launch and execution of ATLAS application programs.  In the computer vocabulary, this procedure is called “system booting”.  System initialization is followed by visual signal indications – all ATLAS modules are equipped with number of LED indicators, which light in accordance with actual system status.  If the system initialization is monitored via ATLAS Programming Terminal, this report is more detailed and comprehensive.  Two types of system start-ups are recognizable:

  • Warm Start - the usual system start-up upon power-on, short-term breaks in power supplying, and problems in operation.  It recovers the system up to the point in time of the outage occurrence, meaning that all process and control data restore values as in the moment of the system outage.  Warm start provides initialization of all system data which might have been damaged.  Warm start could be also activated via reset push-button, or from ATLAS Programming Terminal.
    At the beginning of the warm-start procedure, all hardware resources are initiated and tested.  Afterward, the content of RAM memory is cleared, and databases initiated: input digital and analogue process data refreshed; output digital and analogue data recovered; input and output data validated and local data processing re-established.  Once database initialization was done, it continues with the initialization of other program structures: Linux RT (run-time) kernel; OS input/output system; OS function libraries; memory space allocation; time synchronization and task scheduling.  Upon successful system initialization, program control is turned over to the Linux RT kernel to continue with the regular system activities.

  • Cold Start - the full system reboot from its inactive status to the full operational mode.  It happens on manual system reset (by holding the reset push-button certain time), or on request from ATLAS Programming Terminal.  It causes full ATLAS hardware reset, deactivating of all PI modules, and resetting of all local data processing.  Based on saved configuration database, the automatic system hardware “plug-and-play” and program diagnostics is done.
    Cold start is doing everything from the “warm-start range”, and more: resets calculated digital and analogue parameters; resets internal bit variables; resets transmit data buffers (local and remote communication); resets counter summary values and filters; deactivates direct, AGC, single-step and two-step controls; clears SOE (sequence of events) recording buffers; set analogue data to the lowest range values; makes an automatic hardware inventory and configuration (based on the “plug-and-play” ATLAS specification) and provides hardware and software check-up, verification and validation.


The first-time system start is a special case of the cold start, which assumes a default system configuration.  Initially all configuration data have “factory default values”, which could be changed via the ATLAS Programming Terminal in the SETUP mode.  All changes are saved in non-volatile system memory, and each subsequent cold start is bringing the system into that state.